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Those tips made the assembly come off without a hitch. I […]. My passion is food, clear and simple but especially Italian food, hence the name of my blog, Proud Italian Cook. Round Veggie Lasagna February 20, by Marie. Tips on Making a Round Lasagna.
Comments Ciao Chow Linda says. February 20, at pm. Adri says. Paola Lovisetti Scamihorm says. Jo Lynn says. Wonderful idea!
Lemon says. Marie says. Pat Mille Fiori Favoritigem says. February 21, at am. Laney Ortensia Blu says. Mimi says. This is absolutely beautiful!
SELB, August; TISCHBEIN, August.
Wish I could enjoy a wedge…. Cathy at Wives with Knives says. The Mrs. February 22, at pm. Joann The Italian Next Door says. February 23, at pm. Lucia says. February 24, at pm. Denise Lamb says. February 26, at am.
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Frank Memorie di Angelina says. February 27, at pm. Joan Nova says. March 5, at pm. March 8, at am. February 28, at am. Hello and Welcome! Subscribe for Updates by Email Enter your email address Return to top of page. Covered and ritualized by the media and the official institutions, its commemoration sacralizes the foundational values of liberal democracies: pluralism and Rights of Man.
The defense and the transmission of such values take the form of a secular liturgy of remembering. The civil religion of the Holocaust has virtues but also ambiguities. Within the European Union, the civil religion of the Holocaust tries to show a supranational, ethical community. Like every civil religion, I said, the memory of the Holocaust has its virtues and ambiguities.
Germany ceased considering itself as an ethnical community and became a political community where the myth of blood and soil was replaced by a modern vision of citizenship. Historiography itself was deeply shaped by this tendency, with the consequence of transforming the analytical categories elaborated by the Holocaust Studies into a kind of normative framework. The propensity emerges, in the public debates, to reduce history to a binary confrontation between executors and victims.
This temptation does not concern exclusively the remembrance of genocides but also that of other historical experiences as, for instance, the Spanish Civil War. According to this approach, the conflict between democracy and fascism—the way the Spanish Civil War was perceived in Europe during the s—becomes a sequence of crimes against humanity. Central Europe is a different realm of memory. There, the end of the Second World War coincided with the beginning of the long night of Soviet hibernation.
This explains the violent confrontations in Tallinn in the summer of , in which Estonians came to grips with Russians around a monument devoted to the memory of the soldiers of the Red Army [Fig. For the Russians, this statue celebrates the Great Patriotic War; for the majority of Estonians, on the contrary, it is the symbol of many decades of Soviet oppression. Today, in Eastern Europe, the past is revisited almost exclusively through the prism of nationalism and the new members of the European Union are shaped by a deep re-nationalization of collective memories.
Postulating a substantial continuity between Nazi occupation and Soviet domination, they outline the history of twentieth century as a long national martyrdom and totalitarian night. Inevitably, this approach leaves a marginal place to the memory of the Holocaust, which is reduced to an object of diplomatic mourning, the price to pay for getting respectability. This is paradoxical because the extermination of the Jews did take place in Eastern Europe: it was there that the great majority of the victims lived and the Nazis created ghettos and death camps.
Finally, there is a third European memorial space, which is both transnational and postcolonial. Setif was the starting point for a wave of violence and military repression in French colonies, notably in Madagascar, where an insurrection was bloodily sedated in In Europe, the crimes of colonialism never achieved wide public recognition, only discreet, diplomatic apologies.
In Western Europe, the denial of the crimes of colonialism coexists with the rejection of immigrants and postcolonial minorities that are the privileged targets of xenophobia, racism and islamophobia carried on by the governments themselves. The universal, pedagogical and paradigmatic character of the Holocaust becomes very debatable when it is claimed by a political power that, at the same time, rehabilitates colonialism.
In this context, postcolonial memory puts into question old inherited identities and claims a redefinition of citizenship, recognizing cultural, ethnic and religious pluralism that exists inside every EU national segment. But let me return to the memory of the left. I would like to synthetize it starting from Marx. As the famous eleventh thesis on Feuerbach indicates, Marxism was born and developed as both an interpretation and a project of the revolutionary transformation of the world.
The collapse of communism annihilated its utopic hopes and, consequently, erased its memory.
In memory of Giulio Regeni – In memoria di Giulio Regeni
In other words, it ceased to transmit the memory of the struggles for a better world. Communism was postulated as a telos , as an end of history and, consequently, the cleavages of historical periodization were fixed by revolutions. A straight line linked to , passing through the revolutions of and the Paris Commune. From October onward, the process became global and the ascending curve split in different lines crossing Europe in France, in Portugal , Latin America in Cuba and Asia in China, in Vietnam. The remembrance of the past revolutions was not circumscribed to the exciting moment of emancipation experienced as a collective action; actually, it bore the tragedies of their defeats, but they were glorious defeats—the Paris Commune, the Spartakist uprising, the Spanish Civil War, the Greek Resistance—that prepared new struggles, hopefully victorious.
For a century, socialist communist iconography has illustrated this teleological vision of history. After the October Revolution, utopia ceased to be the abstract representation and became the unchained imagination of a world to be built in the present. Drawing inspiration from the myth of the Tower of Babel, he conceived this work of art in a constructivist style, as a building that had to be not only admired but also used, proving that art was a tool for constructing socialism.
Public and private archives e.
Seeds for Future Memories
The international research, currently focused on the diversity and complexity of the sources, has attributed a key role to the archival dimension compared to the attributional studies, as well to the sociology of arts. In its symbolic goal, which is connected to the exercise of an individual and collective memory, historic archives have inspired several artists and writers, hence becoming a new form of creative poetic of the contemporary world. The archive itself, being composed of heterogeneous materials, i. Moreover the proposed theme is widely diachronic and constitutes a rich environment open to novel works and ideas, thanks to the web of relations which are the peculiarities of the archive, and their main value.
- De chair et de sang (French Edition).
- English translation of 'memoria'.
- Cat's Cradle Books?
- My life with Asperger Syndrome?
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